Teeth grinding, also known as Bruxism, is remarkably common in children and adults. It can lead to a wide range of dental problems, depending on the frequency of the behavior, the intensity, and the underlying causes.
A wide range of psychological, physiological, and physical factors may lead children to grind their teeth. In particular, jaw misalignment (bad bite), stress, and traumatic brain injury are all potential reasons for grinding. Teeth grinding can also occur as a side effect of certain medications.
In general, parents can usually hear intense grinding – especially when it occurs at nighttime. Subtle daytime jaw clenching and grinding, however, can be difficult to pinpoint. Oftentimes, general symptoms provide clues as to whether or not the child is bruxing, including:
Bruxism is characterized by the grinding of the upper jaw against the lower jaw. Especially in cases where there is vigorous grinding, the child may experience moderate to severe jaw discomfort, headaches, and ear pain. Even if the child is completely unaware of nighttime grinding (and parents are unable to hear it), the condition of the teeth provides the pediatric dentist with important clues.
First, chronic teeth grinding usually show an excessive wear pattern on the teeth. If jaw misalignment is the cause, tooth enamel may be worn down in specific areas. In addition, children who brux are more susceptible to chipped teeth, facial pain, gum injury, and temperature sensitivity. In extreme cases, frequent, harsh grinding can lead to the early onset of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJ).
This issue can be caused by several different factors. Most commonly, “bad bite” or jaw misalignment promotes grinding. Pediatric dentists also notice that children tend to grind more frequently in response to life stressors. If the child is going through a particularly stressful exam period or is relocating to a new school for example, nighttime grinding may either begin or intensify.
Children with certain developmental disorders and brain injuries may be at particular risk for grinding. In such cases, the pediatric dentist may suggest botulism injections to calm the facial muscles, or provide a protective nighttime mouthpiece. If the onset is sudden, current medications need to be evaluated. Though it is a rare side effect of specific medications, the medication itself may need to be switched for an alternate brand.
Teeth grinding usually spontaneously ceases by the age of thirteen in the majority of children. In the meantime however, the pediatric dentist will continually monitor its effect on the child’s teeth and may provide an interventional strategy.
In general, the cause of the grinding dictates the treatment approach. If the child’s teeth are badly misaligned, the pediatric dentist may take steps to correct this. Some of the available options include: altering the biting surface of teeth with crowns, and beginning occlusal treatment.
If the habit seems to be exacerbated by stress, the pediatric dentist may recommend relaxation classes, professional therapy, or special exercises. The child’s pediatrician may also provide muscle relaxants to alleviate jaw clenching and reduce jaw spasms.
In cases where young teeth are sustaining significant damage, the pediatric dentist may suggest a specialized nighttime dental appliance such as a nighttime mouth guard. Mouth guards stop tooth surfaces from grinding against each other, and look similar to a mouthpiece a person might wear during sports. Bite splints, or bite plates, fulfill the same function, and are almost universally successful in preventing grinding damage.
If you have questions or concerns about bruxism or grinding teeth, please contact your dentist at Ocean Breeze Dental located in Marina Del Rey, California for more information by calling (424) 256-6650.